익산콜걸ナ24시출장샵┟익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산출장여대생>❖〔익산미시출장안마〕♮익산오산 마사지✦익산부산 모텔 아가씨♫익산제주도 안마방 추천☍익산태국 마사지レ익산영주 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

목포출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

익산콜걸⇤24시출장샵0익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산스웨디시 마사지>⇢〔익산전주 터미널 모텔〕♔익산서울대 안마방┫익산경찰 안마방シ익산마사지 롤러↺익산동대구 마사지♜익산자궁 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 광명서귀포 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

익산콜걸➶출장부르는법┓익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산호치민 1군 마사지>╒〔익산전주 안마방〕♂익산다낭 붐붐 마사지•익산수유 마사지♣익산동대구역 모텔 추천√익산타이 마사지 서비스↺익산유방 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

익산콜걸╩예약┸익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산안마방 출근부>✍〔익산출장 사기〕☈익산도쿄 마사지❉익산부부 마사지◐익산안마방 얼마▽익산안산 고잔동 마사지♟익산마사지 핸플

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

익산콜걸∴예약금없는출장샵→익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산마사지 1인샵>ζ〔익산고잔동 마사지〕✓익산당진 안마방▩익산이태원 안마방α익산만남 방✌익산부천 마사지 추천U익산하마사키 마오 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 청주안마 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

익산콜걸☺출장부르는법┦익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산출장안마>┣〔익산김해 모텔 추천〕☈익산산본 안마방☁익산국산 안마방✤익산콜걸♐익산안마방 발기➼익산서울 출장 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

익산콜걸익산봉천 안마방

  • 경산av 마사지 추천
  • 익산동대구 모텔
  • 익산콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    익산콜걸♮예약금없는출장샵♬익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산군산 모텔 추천>ム〔익산경산 안마방〕▷익산정읍 안마방☠익산얼굴 작아지는 마사지⇠익산임산부 마사지☂익산마사지 롤러↦익산출장 오피

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 서울마사지 알바 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    구미마사지 팁 광주출장안마 봉화국산 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    익산콜걸◘24시출장샵⇘익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산턱관절 마사지>ウ〔익산연신내 마사지〕☚ 익산대산 마사지⇅익산다낭 호텔 마사지•익산비 안마방┮익산남순 마사지☏익산해운대 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 천안양산 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    익산콜걸▶24시출장샵╙익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산방콕 마사지 비용>┰〔익산안마사 자격증〕⇗익산안마방 나이═익산안마방 나무위키❥익산익산 모텔 추천☭익산거제 안마방 추천✘익산마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 창원출장안마 .

    상주전국 안마방
    강진안마방 싸면 끝 전주출장샵 남양주강남 안마방 가격
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    익산콜걸①24시출장샵•익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산대전 황궁 마사지>✿〔익산아프리카tv 마사지〕◆익산정왕동 마사지◤익산서산 안마방█익산구미 안마방↱익산노모 마사지☣익산대림동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    익산콜걸↦출장부르는법♀ 익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산안마방 야간>❄〔익산해외 안마방〕→익산해피 출장⇩익산남자 전립선 마사지♠익산광명 안마방﹄익산다낭 에덴 마사지⇂익산대학로 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 천안출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 삼척마사지 롤러 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    익산콜걸♝예약금없는출장샵✘익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산성내동 안마방>↓〔익산김원중 안마방〕♛익산안마방 에이스 토렌트◦익산마사지 토렌토↔익산베트남 마사지 후기£익산안마방 내부♂익산천안안마

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    익산콜걸☵예약금없는출장샵⇅익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산마사지 tumblr>✔〔익산발 마사지〕♘익산부산 여관 가격☒익산국 안마방 초이스↬익산부산 모텔♠익산안마방 사귄╮익산포천 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 충청북도안마방 의자 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 서울출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 부천대전 출장안마 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 부산출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    익산콜걸⇚예약⇚익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산안마방 대전>オ〔익산가산디지털단지역 안마방〕┡익산태국 마사지 서비스➧익산사우나 마사지↕익산왕십리 마사지☜익산방이동 여관▷익산코 높아지는 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 대전출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 서울출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 창원출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    익산콜걸▨예약θ익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산중국 마사지 후기>φ〔익산신림역 안마방〕┮익산아가씨 출장↚익산안마방 밥☁익산울산 명촌 안마방░익산백석동 마사지➢익산인천 서구 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    전주갓비비 마사지
    진주출장안마 순천일산 마사지 바카라사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    익산콜걸▩24시출장샵❉익산다낭 vip 마사지<익산안마방 단골>☇〔익산고양이 마사지〕◐익산온양 마사지↸익산광명사거리 안마방═익산일본 마사지 야동ェ익산마사지 맛사지↜익산판상근 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.익산콜걸익산호치민 마사지 추천♮익산광명사거리 안마방┷〔익산연신내 안마방〕익산등 마사지┎익산마사지나라♕익산이영학 안마방➚익산역삼 마사지﹌광주출장안마예약익산안마방 오전▨익산분당 마사지┗﹝익산에이미 av﹞익산제천 안마방✈익산합성동 안마방┭익산연수동 마사지♬익산아침에 안마방╅익산콜걸김제양산 마사지익산제천 마사지▫익산엄마와 딸 마사지●《익산월곶 마사지》익산구로디지털단지 안마방☺익산마사지 사정↣익산아프리카 마사지✪익산광양 안마방⇣익산잠실 마사지↝익산부산 마사지┯【익산수안보 안마방】익산국노♣익산에로 마사지♝익산군포 안마방ク익산얼굴 경락 마사지┛익산군자역 안마방▫익산신중동 마사지┛「익산마사지황형」익산발안 모텔ク익산아로마마사지 팁↪익산대산 마사지⊕익산정왕역 안마방♥익산포이 펫 카지노 롤링┤익산필승 안마방的﹝익산순천 안마방﹞익산안마방 수원♥익산베트남 마사지 후기✎익산안마방 엄마⇚익산안마방 직원⇪24시출장샵경상남도상해 마사지24시출장샵익산태국 마사지 후기ソ익산경주 안마방☆〖익산안마방 시스템〗익산안마방 체크카드╔익산화곡동 안마방①익산안마방 알바 썰♦익산출장태국마사지ノ익산콜걸익산콜걸부산출장안마익산부천역 안마방익산딥티슈 마사지익산출장 안마익산사상 마사지익산콜걸익산손목터널증후군 마사지⇘익산타이 안마방▽(익산해수욕장 마사지 토렌트)익산안마방 물다이↛익산강아지 마사지☁익산용산역 마사지◆익산산본 마사지➺상주출장아가씨

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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