진안출장맛사지セ출장부르는법┽진안출장소이스‹진안코 마사지 효과›↔[진안계룡시 안마방]ユ진안스즈 하라 에미리 마사지ヒ진안대림동 마사지✏진안분당 안마방◎진안역삼동 마사지↛진안청주 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

대구출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

진안출장맛사지┨예약금없는출장샵♞진안출장소이스‹진안교대 안마방›⇁[진안출장 후기]§진안대전복합터미널 마사지╧진안사천 안마방☛진안송원장 마사지♥진안장전동 마사지ロ진안림프절 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 울산전지역출장마사지샵 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

진안출장맛사지♪출장부르는법♞진안출장소이스‹진안상암동 안마방›┣[진안금정 안마방]↮진안마사지 구분╊진안마사지┘진안생리통 완화 마사지⇔진안강아지 마사지▨진안하드코어 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

진안출장맛사지┷예약금없는출장샵✤진안출장소이스‹진안은평구 안마방›✘[진안논산 안마방]♚진안합정 안마방➛진안안마방 수위┰진안여주 모텔 추천┱진안수유 안마방⇜진안동두천 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

진안출장맛사지♧24시출장샵┱진안출장소이스‹진안대구 서구 안마방›┋[진안고주파 마사지]┲진안일베 모텔ロ진안아침 안마방♚진안출장 만남 대행⇖진안여성 전신 마사지ウ진안흉쇄유돌근 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 옥천마사지 종류 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

진안출장맛사지┏예약금없는출장샵☣진안출장소이스‹진안jav 마사지›➧[진안평택 마사지]♪진안코 마사지 효과➢진안안마방 텀블러╨진안부천 마사지 추천ク진안하단 마사지✕진안동암 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 전주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

진안출장맛사지진안화성 마사지

  • 진안이기광 안마방
  • 진안정왕역 안마방
  • 진안출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    진안출장맛사지✓예약┯진안출장소이스‹진안논현동 안마방›✃[진안도봉구 안마방]♗진안출장마사지ⓥ진안여수 안마방☠진안구월동 안마방サ진안후두 마사지]진안종아리 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 시흥을지로 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    구미출장안마
    문경마사지 torrent 대구출장샵 부평아가씨 썰
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 평택출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    진안출장맛사지❈24시출장샵┠진안출장소이스‹진안전주 여관›◥[진안안마방 일베]✿진안산본 마사지 후기┏진안구글 안마방♨진안여성 전신 마사지ソ진안안마방 ts▨진안전북 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 부여유두 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    진안출장맛사지β출장부르는법▦진안출장소이스‹진안교대 안마방›♟[진안마사지 초대]☏진안여자 마사지⊿진안안마방 후장⇋진안아빠의 젊은 애인과 끈적한 마사지⇪진안라페스타 안마방セ진안심장 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    구미김원중 안마방
    광양일본 마사지 토렌트 온라인카지노 진안김해 모텔 추천
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    진안출장맛사지➷예약◐진안출장소이스‹진안타이마사지 팁›▨[진안모텔 젤]∷진안하단 안마방┯진안오사카 마사지☼진안안마방 첫경험➛진안천안 마사지◑진안남친이랑 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    진안출장맛사지➸24시출장샵⇏진안출장소이스‹진안대전 안마방›┈[진안태국 마사지 서비스]♥진안안마방 런베스트➻진안커플 마사지 tumblr┃진안오피 마사지╢진안fc2 오일 마사지♧진안아로마마사지 팁

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 전주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 영암어깨 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    진안출장맛사지☭예약W진안출장소이스‹진안논현동 안마방›✏[진안신설동 안마방]┸진안콜걸만남⇪진안안마방 도찰«진안출장 안마↸진안임산부 마사지❧진안테크노폴리스 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    진안출장맛사지◥예약금없는출장샵❈진안출장소이스‹진안정선 마사지›☼[진안출장샵예약]○진안제주도 안마방♪ 진안정준호 안마방┸진안안마방 리뷰➦진안타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ↕진안안마방 수입

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 순천동대문 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The bitsnoop.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 순창대딸 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대구출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    진안출장맛사지┤예약▒진안출장소이스‹진안군산 여관›┾[진안압구정 마사지]£진안안마방 여자⇟진안안마방 비비기┎진안인천 서구 마사지♗진안안마방 카드☻진안마사지 샵

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 전주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    진안출장맛사지♐24시출장샵⇚진안출장소이스‹진안안마방 질싸›┎[진안부산 모텔 촌]£진안긴장성 두통 마사지◘진안양곡 안마방↩진안대전 출장안마☺진안천안 조건▥진안남순 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    영광한대앞 마사지
    대전출장샵 거창세종시 안마방 진주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    진안출장맛사지☆24시출장샵╞진안출장소이스‹진안광혜원 마사지›➷[진안서양 마사지]♩진안칠곡 마사지ホ진안여성 전용 아로마 마사지☆진안해운대 출장┷진안정자역 마사지♔진안안마방 여자친구

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.진안출장맛사지진안태국 마사지 썰╠ 진안프라하 마사지♂[진안안마]진안출장 선입금╅진안블라디보스톡 마사지♝진안출장최강미녀⇢진안엘림 마사지↫포항출장샵예약금없는출장샵진안뒷목 마사지┨진안마사지 망가﹄<진안여의도 마사지>진안종로 안마방▫진안군산 여관↺진안불광동 마사지ア진안고양이 변비 마사지↕진안출장맛사지김포다방 티켓 썰진안대전 마사지╯진안까치산 마사지↪【진안용원 안마방】진안삼산동 마사지➻진안하이퐁 마사지♧진안출장최고시═진안안마방 발기↿진안출장시☭진안출장 타이마사지┑《진안여교사 마사지》진안베이징 안마방↚진안남순 마사지α진안하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지→진안안마방 수입イ진안마사지 출장◈진안부산 안마방 추천✦(진안안마방 전화번호)진안당진 안마방☃진안삼계 안마방↺진안신원동 마사지☭진안포항 타이마사지✎진안천호 안마방◤진안안마방 추천0「진안천호동 안마방」진안안구 마사지▫진안출장마사지 후기┐진안안마방 몰카 torrentタ진안하노이 vip 마사지θ예약경산24시간 안마방출장부르는법진안마사지 망가⇠진안타이 마사지 꿀팁┭[진안마사지 공떡]진안태국 마사지 여행➚진안의정부 마사지♩진안도봉구 안마방┶진안안마방 엉덩이┋진안출장맛사지진안출장맛사지카지노사이트진안성장판 마사지진안한국마사지진안영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ진안안마방 풀코스진안출장맛사지진안괌 마사지☶진안길동 안마방↔〔진안수유역 마사지〕진안유방 마사지ェ진안여대생 마사지-진안콜걸업소╤진안강남 안마방 서비스↛의왕허리통증 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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