고흥출장샵™예약←고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥김해 출장 마사지」▧ 『고흥경주 동천동 안마방』ν고흥안마방 노콘☼고흥머리 마사지❦고흥강원도 안마방↿고흥안양 안마방♂고흥강남 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

포항출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

고흥출장샵┙출장부르는법☏고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥안마방 오랄」♐『고흥안마방 수원』▪고흥러시아 마사지☈고흥미금역 마사지✤고흥안마방 알바 단속♖고흥러브어게인 만남♦고흥인천 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 평택성인 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

고흥출장샵✑출장부르는법▬고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥창원 안마방」↳『고흥일본마사지』↺고흥군자역 안마방”고흥안마방 콘돔☠고흥타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ⇙고흥조루 안마방♟고흥신데렐라 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

고흥출장샵❂예약금없는출장샵♗고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥천안 안마방」☃『고흥오피 마사지』↽고흥소프 마사지➻고흥화성시 안마방↺고흥전립선 마사지 야동╧고흥왁싱 마사지”고흥서양 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대구출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

고흥출장샵”24시출장샵☇고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥여인숙 가격」⇇『고흥구의 안마방』●고흥태국마사지 불법⇛고흥영천 안마방☣고흥두피 마사지↴고흥안마방 존댓말◙고흥50m

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 함평안마방 아영이 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

고흥출장샵▦예약♣고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥안마방 아침」╧『고흥전주 안마방』▲고흥이태원 안마방♈고흥미금 안마방☒고흥포항 터미널 모텔ル고흥50m£고흥브베 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

고흥출장샵고흥전주 안마방

  • 합천커플 마사지
  • 고흥마사지 공떡
  • 고흥출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    고흥출장샵○출장부르는법ρ고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥카오산로드 마사지」⇈『고흥창동역 마사지』☷고흥광주 마사지✗고흥얼굴 마사지▫고흥콜걸◈고흥마사지 분수╯고흥만남

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 화성마사지 할인 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 부산출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    광명안마방 전화 대전출장샵 계룡광양 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 원주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    고흥출장샵╟예약금없는출장샵◊고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥방콕 마사지 비용」⇀『고흥안마방 몰카 tumblr』➧고흥마사지 카드 단속↔고흥공유 마사지☻고흥진해 마사지⇣고흥금정 안마방リ고흥서울 마사지 홈 서비스

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 삼척포항 양덕 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    고흥출장샵ナ출장부르는법↔고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥성신여대 마사지」▽『고흥신도림 마사지』ε고흥대구 전립선 마사지◊고흥강원 랜드 근처 마사지ヘ고흥시엠립 밤문화 마사지♥고흥마사지 샤워기┼고흥마사지 오일

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장샵 .

    남원휴게텔 안마방
    화성서울대입구 안마방 구미출장안마 경상북도충북혁신도시 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    고흥출장샵↝24시출장샵▒고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥코코넛 오일 두피 마사지」↢『고흥서울역 안마방』◘고흥대전 출장▨고흥까치산 마사지♘고흥서울역 안마방ニ고흥안마방 코스♟고흥동대구역 근처 모텔

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    고흥출장샵➦예약⇩고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥여자 마사지」✦『고흥안마방 출근부』♪고흥전립선 마사지 하는 법►고흥영등포역 안마방➨고흥안마방 키스╬고흥구리 안마방δ고흥만수동 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 청도에이미 성인 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    고흥출장샵↪예약금없는출장샵♕고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥로미 로미 마사지 란」✖『고흥출장소이스』┅고흥이태원 안마방♮고흥양재역 마사지☺고흥다낭 vip 마사지♧고흥사천 안마방╌고흥강릉 여관

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    고흥출장샵┛출장부르는법◦고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥마사지 어플」→『고흥남자 마사지』﹄고흥중국식 마사지➳고흥단양 안마방☛고흥나고야 여성전용 마사지➵고흥안마방 20살♬고흥마사지 홈런

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 정선안마방 노출 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 광주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 상주안마방 요도염 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 제주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    고흥출장샵⊥출장부르는법✎고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥거유 마사지」⇪『고흥울산 동구 마사지』√고흥철구 마사지↼고흥기흥구청 마사지.고흥오피스 방◇고흥하복대 안마방┊고흥천안안마

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 온라인카지노 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    고흥출장샵◄24시출장샵⇪고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥출장」✉『고흥안마방 몰카 토렌트』┤고흥석계 마사지✿고흥상록수역 안마방◑고흥방콕 마사지 추천╘고흥구래동 마사지«고흥유성 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    진도안마방 몰카 tumblr
    서울출장안마 아산화정 마사지 서울출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    고흥출장샵♪출장부르는법⇛고흥홈 타이 마사지「고흥구로디지털단지 마사지」┕『고흥오류동 마사지』☜고흥출장업소♙고흥선입금 없는 출장 만남↶고흥실제 안마방ω고흥김해 마사지▦고흥안마방 에이즈

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.고흥출장샵고흥전립선 마사지 부작용π고흥엉덩이 마사지┕『고흥노원 마사지』고흥호이안 마사지U고흥기흥구청 마사지↕고흥성균관대역 마사지➚고흥대딸✿진주출장샵24시출장샵고흥안마방 시간제δ고흥안마방 백마➺(고흥야 동 마사지)고흥안마방 실장┶고흥태국 마사지 야동♔고흥오피걸✍고흥마사지 ssul↩고흥출장샵강릉경성대 마사지고흥전립선 마사지 tumblr♠고흥마사지 av↹[고흥근육 마사지]고흥장전동 마사지◈고흥여성 출장 마사지ζ고흥보라카이 마사지┱고흥하단 마사지レ고흥스포츠 마사지 자격증☷고흥삼송역 안마방0〈고흥안마방 동영상〉고흥김포 마사지┋고흥운정 안마방◦고흥목욕탕 마사지♂고흥구미 안마방.고흥카메라 마사지∷고흥fc2 남친 마사지♥(고흥아로마 마사지 후기)고흥베이징 마사지┨고흥안마방 20대✲고흥길동 안마방┺고흥안산 마사지⇪고흥안마방 발기↽고흥콜걸만남╳〔고흥오일 마사지 av〕고흥수유 마사지✪고흥자카르타 마사지☈고흥손 마사지◑고흥마사지 ㅁㅎㅎ☺출장부르는법파주출장시예약고흥최음 마사지╎고흥타이 마사지 꿀팁┞〖고흥만남 방〗고흥안마방 ssul╧고흥나고야 여성 전용 마사지┠고흥일본 마사지 섹스↮고흥제천 마사지⇣고흥출장샵고흥출장샵대전출장샵고흥부평 안마방고흥구의 안마방고흥신사역 안마방고흥위례 마사지고흥출장샵고흥퇴폐☺고흥출장안마추천⇗<고흥다낭 마사지>고흥지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지♨고흥구의동 안마방▽고흥이하루 마사지☂고흥까치산 마사지┳경상북도안마방 내상

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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